The built-in SMTP server

MailerQ can open one or more SMTP ports on which it accepts incoming mail. All these incoming messages are published to RabbitMQ. The incoming messages are published to the inbox queue, as set with the "rabbitmq-inbox" setting in the config file.

Remember that MailerQ sends out message from the outbox queue - which is a different queue than the inbox queue to which incoming messages are published. By default, incoming message are therefore not immediately sent out again. To overcome this, most MailerQ users give the "rabbitmq-inbox" setting the same value as the "rabbitmq-outbox" setting. All incoming emails are then automatically published to the outbox queue, from which they are then immediately picked up again and scheduled for immediate forwarding.

MailerQ shared inbox outbox queue

However, you can also configure MailerQ to use different inbox and outbox queues. MailerQ then stores all incoming messages in the inbox queue first. You can add your own scripts that process these messages and forwards them to the outbox queue. Would you like to add a script that does additional processing or filtering before an incoming message is forwarded? Configure MailerQ to publish received messages in an inbox queue and let your scripts read these messages from this inbox queue. After processing, post the message to the outbox queue where MailerQ picks them up to deliver them.

MailerQ separate inbox outbox queues

If you use MailerQ to handle incoming email, you can also use scripts that pick up messages from the inbox queue, and store them in mailboxes or maildirs.

Config file settings

In the config file there are a number of variables that you can use to set the ports on which MailerQ should listen, and on which IPs MailerQ should accept incoming SMTP connections:

smtp-port:          25,2525,1024-1026
smtp-secure-port:   2526

The "smtp-port" variable holds the port or ports that MailerQ opens and on which incoming connections are accepted. You can assign a single port, but comma-separated values and port-ranges are also accepted. The default SMTP port is 25, which is the one that you probably want to use.

Normally, MailerQ opens this port on all IP address that are available on the server. This means that if a server has multiple IP addresses, it does not matter to which of its IP addresses you connect: MailerQ listens on all of them. If you want to limit this, you can assign an explicit IP address using the "smtp-ip" variable. If you set this, MailerQ only accepts incoming connections to that specific IP.

The "smtp-port" setting contains the port number for the normal SMTP protocol. The SMTP protocol starts as a non-secure connection. The client and server can start a STARTTLS handshake to secure the connection. Besides normal SMTP connections, it is also possible to open an already secured SMTP socket. Use the "smtp-secure-port" setting for this. A secure port uses TLS right from the start, and no STARTTLS handshake is necessary. This is slightly faster (the initial handshake can be skipped) and is also more secure (the initial EHLO message can not be intercepted). However, such encrypted connections are not part of the SMTP standard, and regular SMTP clients do not expect this. However, if you write your own SMTP handshake code, it sometimes is simpler and faster to have access to a connection that is already encrypted without using "STARTTLS".

The IP address to which you send a message to MailerQ, is normally the same as the address from which the mail is going to be forwarded. Thus, if you send an email to MailerQ listening on IP address, the message will also be sent out from this IP. If you want to send out the message from a different IP instead, you should either add a special MIME header to your mail ("x-mq-ip"), or you can use the following config file variables:


The above config file settings tell MailerQ that the default outgoing IP addresses are and All messages that have not an explicit IP address from which they should be sent, will be sent from one of these two IP addresses.

Messages that are submitted over SMTP, are sent out from the same IP address as to which they were submitted if the IP address is mappable. Thus, if you send a message to, it will also be sent out from IP addresses An IP address is considered to be mappable if it matches with the IP ranges inside the smtp-mappable-ips variable and does not match the ranges in the smtp-unmappable-ips variable. Thus, messages submitted to are also sent out from because that IP is mappable, while messages to get sent out from the default IP's, because this IP address is not mappable.

Secure connections

To secure your SMTP traffic, you can assign a private key and certificate. You can use a self-signed certificate, but it is much better to use a private key and a certificate from a certificate authority. However, using a self-signed key is still better than using no key at all, as most SMTP clients will still accept the self-signed key.

smtp-certificate:   /etc/mailerq/
smtp-key:           /etc/mailerq/

The paths to the certificate and private keys for your domain should be added to the config file, with the list of ciphers that you'd like to support.

Controlling access

By default, no one can connect to the inbound SMTP server. With the "smtp-range" setting you can set the IP addresses from which you want to allow incoming email.


You can assign a semicolon separated list of IP ranges to the "smtp-range" variable.

In addition to specifying IPs you can also set an authentication string in the config file, all inbound connections must first authenticate before they can inject emails. For authentication to work, secure connections have to be configured first.


There are many possible ways to let users authenticate to MailerQ. MailerQ supports LDAP, RADIUS, linux users, HTTP endpoints, username/password files and lastly custom scripts. Keep in mind that if you set a username and password, the SMTP handshake becomes a little slower (incoming connections first have to authenticate before a message can be delivered). If you do not have to, it is therefore ofter faster to set up a firewall or an IP range to restrict access, than to require authentication.

smtp-auth:          hardcoded://username:password,username2,password2
smtp-auth:          ldap://
smtp-auth:          radius://
smtp-auth:          users://user1,mailerq,user2,client*
smtp-auth:          file:///users.txt
smtp-auth:          exec:///path/to/file

The first hardcoded is simply a comma separated list of username:password pairs, separated by the ':' character. Note that this is the least safe, since the passwords will be plainly readable in the config file, in unhashed form. The ldap specifier will connect to the LDAP server and try to bind to DN=uid=username,base_dn. If this succeeds, the user is authenticated, if this fails, the user is rejected. The radius specified will simply request access to the radius server, with the shared secret secret and the identifier identifier. Make sure that the client is set up correctly, or the server will reject the packets and MailerQ logins will fail. The http will perform HTTP BASIC authentication to the endpoint, and will therefore send along the Authorization: Basic ... header. Any 2xx code is treated as a success, while any other code is treated as a failure and a rejection. The file specifier will load a simple text file that contains the usernames and passwords separated by the : character, but with the passwords in hashed form (similar to /etc/passwd). These passwords can be generated using mkpasswd -m sha-512 or openssl passwd -6, for example.

Lastly, the exec specifier will run the /path/to/file in a subprocess, and will check the return code. This way, you can easily implement any authentication you require in a script! For example, you can check a username and password combination in an SQL database, or you can ues the linux PAM modules, or you can make very custom requests. This allows you to tie the SMTP authentication directly into your existing user management.

Local Email Addresses

If you have a username and password installed, messages from unauthenticated connections are normally rejected. However, if an incoming message is sent to an address that is marked as a local address, the message is accepted anyway. MailerQ checks each incoming message and compares the email address with the addresses listed on the "local address list". This list can be managed from the management console.

In the config file you can also assign a special message queue for such local email messages. Every time a message is accepted that is meant for a local address, it will be published to the queue that is assigned to the "rabbitmq-local" config file variable.

If you have also set a "rabbitmq-reports" variable in the config file, MailerQ parses all incoming local messages, and if it detects that it holds a report message (for example a Delivery Status Notification or a DMARC report), it will post the message to this reports queue.

Testing incoming messages

MailerQ can run SPF, DKIM, DMARC and spam checks on incoming messages. The results of these checks are added to the JSON that is published to the inbox queue. You can also instruct MailerQ to modify the incoming messages and add an extra "authentication-results" header to the mail.

smtp-check:         spf,dkim,dmarc,spam
smtp-auth-results:  local,nonlocal

The "smtp-check" variable in the config file can be set to a comma separated list of checks that have to be performed on incoming messages. Supported values are "spf", "dkim", "dmarc" and "spam". The results of the checks are added to the JSON.

If you also want to add the check results to the "authentication-results" field in the MIME header, you can use the "smtp-auth-results" config file variable. This variable can be set to a comma separated list holding the possible values "local" and "nonlocal". If you set it to "local", the authentication-results header will only be added to incoming emails that were sent to a Local Email Address. The "nonlocal" value does exactly the opposite.

The DKIM, DMARC and SPF checks are all performed by MailerQ ifself. MailerQ has its own embedded algorithms to test whether incoming messages are valid. In practice, it comes down to extracting information from the e-mail, and doing a couple of DNS lookups to check whether the information in the mail matches the settings published in DNS.

Besides comparing mails with settings in DNS, MailerQ can also run a spam-check on incoming messages. For this, MailerQ uses the open source "SpamAssassin" application. Each incoming message is sent to SpamAssassin to test whether it is spam or ham. If you add the "spam" option to the "smtp-check" config file variable, you therefore also need a running SpamAssassin daemon (which is normally called "spamd"). The address where this daemon can be reached must be set in the config file.

spamassassin-host:  localhost
spamassassin-port:  783

The above config file settings tells MailerQ that the the SpamAssassin daemon is running on the same machine as MailerQ, and that it can be reached on port 783 (which is SpamAssassin's default port).

Running behind HAProxy

It is possible to run MailerQ behind a HAProxy server. If you do this, external clients do not directly connect to MailerQ, but to the proxy server instead. This proxy server then forwards the incoming traffic to one of the MailerQ backend servers.

All incoming traffic is thus first passed through the proxy server. From the perspective of MailerQ, the remote IP address of each incoming TCP connection is the IP address of the proxy, and not the (much more interesting) client address. To allow MailerQ to see the client IP address too, the PROXY protocol can be enabled on the HAProxy server. By enabling this protocol, the proxy server adds a small header in front of all forwarded TCP connections, with some meta information of the connection (most importantly, the client IP address).

With the "smtp-proxy" setting you tell MailerQ that when a connection comes in from a specific IP address, it should be treated as a connection from a proxy server, and the first bytes that are received should not be treated as the SMTP protocol, but as the initial PROXY header:


The "smtp-proxy" settings accepts a list of semicolon separated IP ranges. All incoming connections that match one of these ranges will be treated as proxied connections, and the first bytes will be treated as PROXY header, and not as SMTP traffic.

Validating email addresses

For the JSON, email address validation can be loosened, so that attempts will be made despite an email address not being fully RFC compliant. To allow injection of such messages, the smtp-validate-address option should be set. This option is for the email supplied at the MAIL FROM and RCPT TO stage. Valid values are strict and loose.

By enabling injection for invalid emails, yet requiring RFC compliant emails during the sending phase, the mails can be initially accepted and processed by the rest of the infrastructure via RabbitMQ, instead of having to acount for the possibility that the injection goes wrong.

smtp-validate-address:  strict


To prevent that MailerQ exhausts the max number of open TCP connections that is allowed by the OS, you can set a "smtp-connections" setting. There will never be more than this number of total incoming and outgoing connections.

smtp-connections:       100
smtp-connections-in:    50
smtp-connections-out:   75

To prevent an excessive amount of either outgoing or incoming connections to block their counterparts from creating connections, the limits can also be adjusted separately. In the example above, the maximum amount of incoming connections are set to 50, but the maximum amount of outgoing connections are 75. When MailerQ is mostly sending, that means that MailerQ only allows 75 outgoing connections at the same time, which means that there are 25 connections reserved for the incoming connections. This guarantees that always at least 25 clients can be connected at the same time. If sending slows down, this number can grow up to 50, at which point it hits the incoming connection limit, preventing it from taking up the connection space for outgoing connections.

If only the global limit would be set in the example above, if MailerQ is connected to 100 endpoints, incoming connections would be queued until the connection limit dropped again. If there are already 100 incoming connections, MailerQ would be unable to send any email, because the global connection limit is already exhausted.

Usually, you want all three values to be set, to guarantee that ever side has a reserved space for the amount of connections that they can make.

Other settings

The following variables may also be useful when you set up an SMTP server:

smtp-maxsize:           100MB
smtp-threads:           1
smtp-timeout:           300
smtp-protection:        true

In the initial SMTP handshake the client advertises its capabilities (like the max message size to accept). The config file setting "smtp-maxsize" contains the maximum allowed input size for message.

All SMTP traffic is handled by separate threads. The number of threads that are started for SMTP traffic can be set with the "smtp-threads" setting. Increasing this value can give a real boost to MailerQ's performance and we recommend to set it close to the number of CPU's that you have in your machine.

Important! The "smtp-threads" variable is meaningful for outgoing connections as well!

When a client connects to the SMTP server but stops responding before the transaction is complete, MailerQ will wait for a response for the amount of seconds set in "smtp-timeout"

To protect your incoming SMTP server, you can set a list of IP addresses that you suspect of abuse. "smtp-protection" enables blocking of these addresses when they connect.

A client that connects to the SMTP server, will be greeted with a message containing a hostname. This normally is the hostname that is associated with the MTA and is, per IP, configurable. The hostnames are normally auto-detected via reverse DNS or can be overridden via the management console. If the inbound MTA is not yet associated with an MTA, the setting from the config file is used. If the config file also holds no setting, a reverse DNS lookup is started. So the algorithm for finding the hostname used in the SMTP welcome message is:

  1. If an MTA hostname has been configured, the name of this MTA used.
  2. Alternatively, the hostname set in the config file is used.
  3. If still no hostname is found, a reverse DNS lookup is started.

Multiple IP addresses

If you have not used the "smtp-ip" setting and you run MailerQ on a server with multiple IP addresses, the SMTP server is available on all the server's IP addresses. A client can therefore choose to which IP address to send your mail. MailerQ recognizes the IP address to which the mail was originally submitted, stores that information in the JSON message, and when the mail is finally forwarded to the internet, it will be sent out from exactly the same IP address. You should be aware that this can cause problems if you deliver your email to an IP address from which no external connections can be made (like

If you want MailerQ to send out the mail from a different IP address than that you originally sent it to, you can include an extra MIME header field that instructs MailerQ to use a different IP instead.

MIME headers

All incoming messages are converted into JSON messages and published to RabbitMQ. The minimal JSON message contains the envelope address, the recipient and the mime data, which is all extracted from the SMTP protocol.

If you want to add more settings to the JSON, you can do so with special headers in the MIME message. Every header that starts with "x-mq-" is treated as a special MailerQ header, and will be turned into a JSON property that controls how the mail is going to be handled.

This feature to automatically extract meta data from the MIME header can be disabled in the config file. If you use MailerQ as an internet facing receiver, you probably do not want to allow users to control the deliverability by adding "x-mq-*" these headers, so in that case you can better disable this feature in the config file:

smtp-extract:       true    (default: true)