To reduce the load on RabbitMQ, MailerQ can use an external message store. Only the email meta data (like the recipient, the envelope address, et cetera) has then to be stored in the JSON object in RabbitMQ, while the full MIME data can be stored in the message store.
storage-address: mongodb://hostname/database/collection storage-threads: 1 storage-policy: all storage-ttl: 3600
This message store is completely optional: if you set the "storage-address" variable to an empty string, MailerQ works just as well (even faster because no extra communication with the storage server is necessary), but the load on RabbitMQ and the network will be much higher.
A number of different storage systems are supported: Couchbase, MongoDB or plain files stored on the local file system. In theory it is also possible to use MySQL, SQLite or PostgreSQL, but it is better not to use a relational database, because such systems are not optimized for document storage.
The address of the message store can be set with the "storage-address" config file variable. The following addresses are supported:
storage-address: couchbase://password@hostname/bucketname storage-address: mongodb://hostname/database/collection storage-address: sqlite:///path/to/database/file storage-address: mysql://user:password@hostname/databasename storage-address: postgresql://user:password@hostname/databasename storage-address: dir:///path/to/directory
If you have a cluster of Couchbase or MongoDB servers, you can split the
hostnames with semicolons (
;). For MongoDB you can also specify
the name of the replica set in the address if you have more than one server.
storage-address: couchbase://password@host1;host2;host3/bucketname storage-address: mongodb://host1;host2;host3/replicaset/database/collection
MailerQ relies on external libraries to be present on your system to communicate with the external storage engine. The Couchbase C client library has to be installed if you want to use the Couchbase storage engine, and the Mongo C Driver is needed to connect to MongoDB.
The address string to connect to MongoDB is directly passed to the MongoDB driver. All the options that are supported by this driver can be used in the address string.
Some of our issues ran into issues with fetch operations. They reported strange hiccups and that MailerQ did not always succeed in fetching data, even when it is available. We've added a quick and dirty fix for this by simply repeating the fetch operation a couple of times in case of a failure. To enable this feature, you can add a special option to the address:
The default number of attempts is 1. If you want to repeat failed lookups a couple of times, you can pass in a higher value.
To prevent that many small read operations are fired at MongoDB, MailerQ normally groups fetch operations into a single "multi-get" operation that fetches many documents with just a single query. This reduces the number of queries that are sent to MongoDB, but if one of the requested documents is hard to find, it also slows down the lookup of all the other documents in the same query. To get a balance between this, you can limit the number of fetch operations that can be grouped together:
MongoDB has a limitation of around 16 MB per document (there is some overhead due to the usage of their internal BSON representation). If MailerQ has to store a bigger document, the message is split up into smaller parts that are all individually stored into MongoDB. As a consequence, you can find three types of documents in the database.
Most mails are less than 16mb big. So you will mostly see regular messages in the database with the following properties:
If the message is bigger than 16mb, MailerQ splits up the message and stores a master document with the following properties:
Each individual part of a big message has the following properties:
If you use the "directory://" storage backend, MailerQ stores all the messages in seperate files on the file system. To prevent that the number of files in a directory becomes too big, MailerQ creates a nested directory structure. By default, this directory structure is four files deep. If you want to use a different depth, you can specify this via a "depth" parameter:
Strangely enough, most storage drivers only offer a synchronous and blocking API. This means that storage operations can only be started after previous operations were completed. To prevent that the entire MailerQ process gets blocked while a storage operation is in progress, MailerQ maintains multiple connections to the storage servers, and starts separate threads in which the storage operations are being executed.
The number of threads (and the number of storage connections) can be set using the "storage-threads" variable. If you set this to a higher value, the throughput of storage operations gets better too.
The "storage-policy" config file setting tells MailerQ what type of messages should be stored in the message store. Valid values are "all", "out", "in" and "none". The "none" setting is meaningful if you only want MailerQ to retrieve mime data from external storage, without ever starting storage operations.
Before MailerQ publishes a message to RabbitMQ (for example, before it sends a received message to the inbox queue, or before it send a delayed message back to the outbox queue) it checks the storage policy to see whether the mime data should be sent to RabbitMQ too, or that the mime data should be stored in a different storage system.
If you want all messages to be stored in the message store, use the "all" policy. If this policy is enabled, MailerQ checks each JSON object before it gets published to RabbitMQ. If the JSON still contains mime data, MailerQ removes this data from the JSON and stores it in the message store instead. The JSON data will be updated with a "key" property that refers to the data in the message store.
The "in" and "out" policies are more complex. The "out" policy instructs MailerQ to use the message store for outgoing messages only. If a message is greylisted or delayed and is published back to the outbox, MailerQ first strips the mime data from the JSON, and stores that in the message store. Incoming messages (like the ones that come in on the SMTP port, or the messages dropped in the spool directory) are not checked and the full mime data is published to RabbitMQ.
The "out" policy is often used, because most emails get delivered at the very first attempt, and it is therefore often a waste of resources to store incoming messages first in a NoSQL environment: the messages will probably be retransmitted a fraction of a second later. By using the "out" storage policy, initial injected emails are completely sent to RabbitMQ. Only if the initial delivery fails and the message is sent back to the outbox for later delivery, the full MIME data is stripped from the JSON and stored in the separate storage.
The "out" policy especially makes sense in setups where the majority of all deliveries succeed at the first attempt, and rescheduled attempts are likely to be pumped around between MailerQ and RabbitMQ for a number of times.
Only "all", "out" and "none" are meaningful policies. For completeness however, we also support the "in" property which does exactly the opposite as the "out" policy: all incoming messages are stored in the message store, and only meta data is published to RabbitMQ. However, when a mail is delayed and has to be published back to the outbox, the mime data is kept inside RabbitMQ.
When you store messages, you probably don't want to keep them forever in your message store. To overcome this, every message has a time-to-live value, and expired message are automatically removed from storage. The "storage-ttl" config option specifies the default time-to-live that is used for message that are stored in the document store.
Note that the time-to-live is added to the mail max delivery time. If you try to send out an email using MailerQ, and that email has to be delivered within 24 hours, and your "storage-ttl" is set to 3600 seconds (one hour), the mime data will be stored in NoSQL for at most 25 hours.
MailerQ uses a timeout for storage operations. If the storage server does not respond within this time, the message is published back to RabbitMQ and will be retried later.
storage-timeout: 20 storage-reschedule: 120
With the above settings you tell MailerQ to timeout fetch-operation after 20 seconds, and publish the mail back to RabbitMQ for 120 seconds.
You may choose to compress the messages you store to reduce the load on your storage server and limit the amount of data you need to send. This feature can be turned on by specifying "compression=gzip" in the storage URL, e.g.:
Our NoSQL library will then take care of compressing all data behind the scenes. Note that this does mean that the contents of your database are no longer human readable.
The compression feature is currently enabled only for
Support for the couchbase and SQLite backends is still in an experimental state.
When you use a new IP address to send out emails, mailbox providers can initially be hesitant to accept large volumes of email from it...
Last week MailerQ attended the 44th M3AAWG meeting in Brooklyn, New York. The M3AAWG Meeting is a members-only event in which leading...